What are the most common diseases in children?

Common cold

The child has a stuffy nose, is Runny, and his eyes are watery. A child sneezes and coughs a lot. He could have a cold. This disease is most common in babies and young children, especially during seasonal changes.


  • Ensure your child gets enough fluids to keep him hydrated, like water and low-sugar juices.
  • Keep him away from crowded places, sick people, and other children.
  • Teach him to use a tissue to blow his nose or cover his mouth when he sneezes.
  • Please do not give him medications that his paediatrician has not recommended or prescribed. However, if you provide the wrong dose, you could lead to an overdose.
  • Use saline drops to moisten your child’s nasal passages and an aspirator to remove excess mucus.
  • Add a Mist humidifier into the room of your child to improve the air they breathe. Keep it clean frequently to avoid mould buildup.
  • Take your child to the doctor if they don’t improve after about 5-7 days or if they have a fever over 38°C.


Fever, itching, and red spots all over the body and face are the most common symptoms of chickenpox, another prevalent disease in children. The rash caused by this condition usually appears over a few days, and in some cases, the welts often leave scars if they become infected.

In healthy children, chickenpox is a common and mild illness. However, it spreads swiftly and is highly contagious through direct contact or airborne droplets from a person with the virus.


  • Inform the school or child care centre about your child’s situation and keep your child home for disease prevention and spreading to other children.
  • To prevent scratching, trim his nails and consider putting on gloves at night.
  • To assist, give your youngster a cold water bath to relieve itching.
  • Take him to a health centre immediately if the rash spreads to the eyes or becomes very red or tender. Also, if you have symptoms such as dizziness, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, loss of muscle coordination, stiff neck, tremors or very high fever.

Stomach flu (gastroenteritis):

It’s more than just a tummy ache. Children suffer from nausea and vomiting. The stools are smelly and too soft. He could suffer from the stomach flu or an intestinal infection. Other symptoms include abdominal pain, muscle aches, and low-grade fever.


  • To replace water and salt loss, keep your child hydrated with water or juices that don’t contain milk. Remember that your child is still small and cannot keep down many liquids.
  • Once he feels like eating, offer small amounts of bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast. You could also try feeding him Greek yoghurt, which is high in probiotics that promote healthy flora in the gut.
  • Avoid contact with other people, as this condition is contagious.
  • Take him to the doctor if the symptoms persist or worsen.


This inflammation of the eyelids’ tissue causes redness, yellowish discharge, blurred vision, and crusty eyes. Conjunctivitis in children is caused by a bacterial infection, treated with antibiotic drops.

It is worth mentioning that conjunctivitis can also result from a virus, which does not require medication, allergies or an irritant in the air, which can be treated with other types of drops.


  • Wash your hands regularly, avoid touching your eyes, and don’t share hand towels, blankets, or pillows so that other family members don’t get infected.


Children are wheezing and experiencing chest tightness or pain. It doesn’t feel easy to breathe. In addition to these symptoms, a cough that won’t go away is also a sign of asthma. This condition affects the airways by making them sensitive and inflamed. It is widespread and affects about 20% of children in the country.


  • Take your child to the doctor so they can examine him and diagnose if it is this condition or another underlying disease.
  • If your child has asthma, teach him how to use his inhaler according to his doctor’s instructions. If he cannot breathe, he should use it immediately and repeat the procedure every 20 minutes for an hour.
  • If your kid expresses any of the following, asthma symptoms don’t get better or worsen, or they return within four hours.
  • Allergic rhinitis (allergies)
  • Identify common diseases in children with allergic rhinitis.
  • If your child is constantly sneezing and has a runny nose, they may have allergic rhinitis. This chronic disease is prevalent in children and the spring. It is usually associated with asthma, ear infections or eczema.


  • Avoid common triggers like dust mites and tobacco smoke.
  • Instead, use a high-efficiency particulate air filter to reduce dust.
  • Try buying an extra pillow to keep your child’s head upright to reduce congestion and make breathing easier.
  • Take your child to the doctor if allergic rhinitis affects their daily activities. In addition, the specialist may prescribe oral antihistamines and nasal sprays.
  • When to call the doctor
  • Most childhood illnesses run their course without much concern. But for some symptoms (and for sure children), a visit to your paediatrician is recommended if they:
  • Dehydration. Your child may have sunken eyes (or, if he’s a baby, a sunken fontanelle) or seem incredibly lethargic. His mouth may even be sticky to the touch. 
  • High fever. In newborns, any elevated temperature warrants a visit. For older babies and older children, the maximum is 39°C.
  • Difficulty breathing. Its breathing is rapid—no long pauses between each breath.
  • Lack of appetite. It is usual for a sick child to have little interest in food. But if your child eats or drinks less than half of what they would typically consume for two days or more, talk to your paediatrician.
  • Pre-existing conditions. If your child has been diagnosed with asthma, diabetes, a weakened immune system, or another chronic medical disease, talk to his paediatrician whenever he contracts a virus that could compromise his health.


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